List 44

Biology Words

179 words relating to Biology

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definitions & notes
only words

  1. abdomen

    the region of the body between the thorax and the pelvis
  2. abiogenesis

    a hypothetical organic phenomenon by which living organisms are created from nonliving matter
  3. absorption

    a process in which one substance permeates another
  4. activation energy

    the energy that an atomic system must acquire before a process (such as an emission or reaction) can occur
  5. active transport

    transport of a substance (as a protein or drug) across a cell membrane against the concentration gradient; requires an expenditure of energy
  6. allele

    any of the forms of a gene that can occupy the same locus
  7. alternation of generations

    the alternation of two or more different forms in the life cycle of a plant or animal
  8. anabolism

    the synthesis in living organisms of more complex substances (e.g., living tissue) from simpler ones together with the storage of energy
  9. antibiotic

    a substance used to kill microorganisms and cure infections
  10. antigen

    any substance that stimulates an immune response in the body
  11. appendicular skeleton

    the part of the skeleton that includes the pectoral girdle and the pelvic girdle and the upper and lower limbs
  12. asexual reproduction

    reproduction without the fusion of gametes
  13. atrium

    a chamber connected to other chambers or passageways
  14. axial skeleton

    the part of the skeleton that includes the skull and spinal column and sternum and ribs
  15. bilateral symmetry

    the property of being symmetrical about a vertical plane
  16. bile

    a digestive juice secreted by the liver
  17. biomass

    the total amount of living matter in a given unit area
  18. biome

    major ecological community with distinct climate and flora
  19. biosynthesis

    production of a chemical compound by a living organism
  20. bivalve

    marine or freshwater mollusks having a soft body with platelike gills enclosed within two shells hinged together
  21. bone marrow

    the fatty network of connective tissue that fills the cavities of bones
  22. botany

    the branch of biology that studies plants
  23. catabolism

    breakdown in living organisms of more complex substances into simpler ones together with release of energy
  24. catalyst

    substance that initiates or accelerates a chemical reaction
  25. cell wall

    a rigid layer of polysaccharides enclosing a plant membrane
  26. cellulose

    a polysaccharide that is the chief constituent of all plant tissues and fibers
  27. centromere

    a specialized condensed region of each chromosome that appears during mitosis where the chromatids are held together to form an X shape
  28. cerebellum

    a major division of the vertebrate brain
  29. cerebrum

    anterior portion of the brain consisting of two hemispheres
  30. chemical change

    process determined by substances' composition and structure
  31. chitin

    component of arthropods' exoskeletons and bodies of fungi
  32. chlorophyll

    any of green pigments found in photosynthetic organisms
  33. chloroplast

    plastid containing chlorophyll and other pigments
  34. chromatin

    the readily stainable substance of a cell nucleus consisting of DNA and RNA and various proteins; during mitotic division it condenses into chromosomes
  35. chromosome

    a threadlike strand of DNA that carries genes
  36. circulatory system

    the organs and tissues involved in circulating blood and lymph through the body
  37. codon

    a specific sequence of three adjacent nucleotides on a strand of DNA or RNA that specifies the genetic code information for synthesizing a particular amino acid
  38. cohesion

    the state of sticking together
  39. commensalism

    when one organism benefits from another without damaging it
  40. community

    a group of people living in a particular local area
  41. compound eye

    in insects and some crustaceans: composed of many light-sensitive elements each forming a portion of an image
  42. concentration

    the spatial property of being crowded together
  43. conjugation

    the state of being joined together
  44. cotyledon

    embryonic leaf in seed-bearing plants
  45. cytology

    the branch of biology that studies the structure and function of cells
  46. cytolysis

    pathological breakdown of cells by the destruction of their outer membrane
  47. cytoplasm

    the substance inside a cell, not including the nucleus
  48. cytoskeleton

    a microscopic network of actin filaments and microtubules in the cytoplasm of many living cells that gives the cell shape and coherence
  49. deciduous plant

    a plant having foliage that is shed annually at the end of the growing season
  50. diffusion

    the act of dispersing something
  51. digestion

    the process by which the body breaks down food
  52. dihybrid cross

    hybridization using two traits with two alleles each
  53. dominant allele

    an allele that produces the same phenotype whether its paired allele is identical or different
  54. ecology

    the environment as it relates to living organisms
  55. ecosystem

    organisms interacting with their physical environment
  56. ectoplasm

    the outer granule-free layer of cytoplasm
  57. ectothermic

    of animals except birds and mammals
  58. element

    a substance that cannot be separated into simpler substances
  59. endoplasm

    the inner portion of the cytoplasm of a cell
  60. endoskeleton

    the internal skeleton; bony and cartilaginous structure
  61. endospore

    a small asexual spore that develops inside the cell of some bacteria and algae
  62. endothermic

    occurring or formed with absorption of heat
  63. epidermis

    the outer layer of skin covering the body surface
  64. epithelium

    membranous tissue covering internal organs and other internal surfaces of the body
  65. excretion

    the bodily process of discharging waste matter
  66. exoskeleton

    the exterior protective or supporting structure or shell of many animals (especially invertebrates) including bony or horny parts such as nails or scales or hoofs
  67. eyespot

    an eyelike marking
  68. fermentation

    breaking down an organic substance, as sugar into alcohol
  69. flagellate

    whip or scourge; punish as if by whipping
  70. foot

    the pedal extremity of vertebrates other than human beings
  71. fruit

    the ripened reproductive body of a seed plant
  72. gemmule

    the physically discrete element that Darwin proposed as responsible for heredity
  73. gene

    part of DNA controlling physical characteristics and growth
  74. genetics

    the study of heredity and variation in organisms
  75. genotype

    the alleles at specified loci present in an organism
  76. gestation

    the period during which an embryo develops
  77. gonad

    a gland in which gametes (sex cells) are produced
  78. greenhouse effect

    warming when solar radiation is trapped by the atmosphere
  79. haustorium

    a root-like attachment in parasitic plants that penetrates and obtains food from the host
  80. hermaphroditic

    of animal or plant
  81. hibernation

    the resting state in which some animals pass the winter
  82. holdfast

    restraint that attaches to something or holds something in place
  83. homeostasis

    metabolic equilibrium maintained by biological mechanisms
  84. hydrogen bond

    a chemical bond consisting of a hydrogen atom between two electronegative atoms (e.g., oxygen or nitrogen) with one side be a covalent bond and the other being an ionic bond
  85. hydrolysis

    a chemical reaction in which water reacts with a compound to produce other compounds; involves the splitting of a bond and the addition of the hydrogen cation and the hydroxide anion from the water
  86. hydrophobic

    lacking affinity for water
  87. hypha

    any of the threadlike filaments forming the mycelium of a fungus
  88. hypothesis

    a tentative insight that is not yet verified or tested
  89. inheritance

    hereditary succession to a title or an office or property
  90. isotonic solution

    a solution having the same osmotic pressure as blood
  91. karyotype

    the appearance of the chromosomal makeup of a somatic cell in an individual or species (including the number and arrangement and size and structure of the chromosomes)
  92. loam

    a rich soil consisting of sand, clay and organic materials
  93. lysosome

    an organelle found in the cytoplasm of most cells
  94. macroevolution

    evolution on a large scale extending over geologic era and resulting in the formation of new taxonomic groups
  95. mantle

    a sleeveless garment like a cloak but shorter
  96. matter

    that which has mass and occupies space
  97. medulla oblongata

    lower or hindmost part of the brain
  98. medusa

    one of two forms that coelenterates take: it is the free-swimming sexual phase in the life cycle of a coelenterate; in this phase it has a gelatinous umbrella-shaped body and tentacles
  99. meiosis

    cell division in sexually reproducing organisms
  100. membrane

    a sheet of tissue that lines or connects organs or cells
  101. mesenchyme

    mesodermal tissue that forms connective tissue and blood and smooth muscles
  102. messenger RNA

    the template for protein synthesis
  103. metabolism

    the organic processes that are necessary for life
  104. microevolution

    evolution resulting from small specific genetic changes that can lead to a new subspecies
  105. mitosis

    the process by which a cell divides into two smaller cells
  106. model

    a representation of something, often on a smaller scale
  107. molt

    cast off hair, skin, horn, or feathers
  108. monohybrid cross

    hybridization using a single trait with two alleles
  109. mother cell

    cell from which another cell of an organism develops
  110. mutation

    a change or alteration in form or qualities
  111. mutualism

    the relation between two organisms that benefit each other
  112. mycelium

    the vegetative part of a fungus consisting of a mass of branching threadlike hyphae
  113. nervous system

    the sensory and control apparatus consisting of a network of nerve cells
  114. neurotoxin

    any toxin that affects neural tissues
  115. notochord

    a flexible rodlike structure that forms the supporting axis of the body in the lowest chordates and lowest vertebrates and in embryos of higher vertebrates
  116. nucleus

    a part of the cell responsible for growth and reproduction
  117. osmosis

    diffusion of molecules through a semipermeable membrane
  118. paleontology

    the earth science that studies fossil organisms
  119. parasite

    an animal or plant that lives in or on a host
  120. parasitism

    when one organism benefits from another by causing damage
  121. passive transport

    transport of a substance across a cell membrane by diffusion
  122. pathogen

    any disease-producing agent
  123. pedigree

    the ancestry or lineage of an individual
  124. pellicle

    thin protective membrane in some protozoa
  125. peptide bond

    the primary linkage of all protein structures
  126. phagocytosis

    process in which phagocytes engulf and digest microorganisms and cellular debris; an important defense against infection
  127. phase

    any distinct time period in a sequence of events
  128. phenotype

    observable characteristics produced by genes and environment
  129. phloem

    plant tissue that conducts synthesized food substances
  130. phospholipid

    any of various compounds composed of fatty acids and phosphoric acid and a nitrogenous base; an important constituent of membranes
  131. photosynthesis

    formation of compounds in plants aided by radiant energy
  132. phototropism

    an organism's orienting response to light
  133. physical change

    a change from one state (solid or liquid or gas) to another without a change in chemical composition
  134. physiology

    the science dealing with the functioning of organisms
  135. phytoplankton

    photosynthetic or plant constituent of plankton
  136. placenta

    the vascular structure in the uterus of most mammals providing oxygen and nutrients for and transferring wastes from the developing fetus
  137. plankton

    aggregate of small organisms that float or drift in water
  138. plasma membrane

    a thin membrane enclosing the cytoplasm of a cell
  139. plasmid

    a small cellular inclusion consisting of a ring of DNA that is not in a chromosome but is capable of autonomous replication
  140. pollen

    the fine spores that contain male gametes and that are borne by an anther in a flowering plant
  141. pollination

    transfer of the fine spores that contain male gametes
  142. polyp

    a small vascular growth on the surface of a mucous membrane
  143. population

    the people who inhabit a territory or state
  144. pseudopod

    temporary outgrowth of a cell used for locomotion or feeding
  145. radial symmetry

    the property of symmetry about an axis
  146. recessive allele

    an allele that produces its characteristic phenotype only when its paired allele is identical
  147. regeneration

    the act of forming again; renewing and reconstituting
  148. reproduction

    the act of making copies
  149. respiration

    a single complete act of breathing in and out
  150. saprophyte

    an organism that feeds on dead organic matter especially a fungus or bacterium
  151. secretion

    the organic process of releasing some substance
  152. seed

    a mature fertilized plant ovule consisting of an embryo and its food source and having a protective coat or testa
  153. semipermeable membrane

    a membrane (as a cell membrane) that allows some molecules to pass through but not others
  154. sexual reproduction

    reproduction involving the union or fusion of a male and a female gamete
  155. shell

    the material that forms the hard outer covering of many animals
  156. simple eye

    an eye having a single lens
  157. species

    taxonomic group whose members can interbreed
  158. spore

    a small usually single-celled asexual reproductive body produced by many nonflowering plants and fungi and some bacteria and protozoans and that are capable of developing into a new individual without sexual fusion
  159. sporophore

    a spore-bearing branch or organ: the part of the thallus of a sporophyte that develops spores; in ferns and mosses and liverworts is practically equivalent to the sporophyte
  160. stolon

    a horizontal branch from the base of plant that produces new plants from buds at its tips
  161. symbiosis

    the relation between two interdependent species of organisms
  162. taxonomy

    a classification of organisms based on similarities
  163. thallus

    a plant body without true stems or roots or leaves or vascular system; characteristic of the thallophytes
  164. theory

    a belief that can guide behavior
  165. thorax

    the body of an arthropod between the head and the abdomen
  166. transduction

    the process whereby a transducer accepts energy in one form and gives back related energy in a different form
  167. transformation

    the act of changing in form or shape or appearance
  168. translocation

    the transport of dissolved material within a plant
  169. transpiration

    the emission of water vapor from the leaves of plants
  170. univalve

    used of mollusks, especially gastropods, as snails etc.
  171. vaccine

    injection of weakened or dead microbes to create antibodies
  172. vacuole

    a tiny cavity filled with fluid in the cytoplasm of a cell
  173. ventricle

    a chamber of the heart that receives blood from an atrium
  174. virus

    infectious agent that replicates itself within living hosts
  175. watershed

    a ridge of land that separates two adjacent river systems
  176. xylem

    plant tissue that conducts water and dissolved nutrients
  177. zooplankton

    animal constituent of plankton
  178. zygospore

    a plant spore formed by two similar sexual cells
  179. zygote

    the cell from the union of a haploid spermatozoon and ovum
Created on March 15, 2012
(updated April 5, 2012)

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